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Maps of United States
One common type of visualization in data science is that of geographic data. Admittedly, Basemap feels a bit clunky to use, and often even simple visualizations take much longer to render than you might hope. More modern solutions such as leaflet or the Google Maps API may be a better choice for more intensive map visualizations. Still, Basemap is a useful tool for Python users to have in their virtual toolbelts. In this section, we'll show several examples of the type of map visualization that is possible with this toolkit.
Installation of Basemap is straightforward; if you're using conda you can type this and the package will be downloaded:. Once you have the Basemap toolkit installed and imported, geographic plots are just a few lines away the graphics in the following also requires the PIL package in Python 2, or the pillow package in Python 3 :. The useful thing is that the globe shown here is not a mere image; it is a fully-functioning Matplotlib axes that understands spherical coordinates and which allows us to easily overplot data on the map!
For example, we can use a different map projection, zoom-in to North America and plot the location of Seattle. We'll use an etopo image which shows topographical features both on land and under the ocean as the map background:. This gives you a brief glimpse into the sort of geographic visualizations that are possible with just a few lines of Python.
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We'll now discuss the features of Basemap in more depth, and provide several examples of visualizing map data. Using these brief examples as building blocks, you should be able to create nearly any map visualization that you desire.
The first thing to decide when using maps is what projection to use. You're probably familiar with the fact that it is impossible to project a spherical map, such as that of the Earth, onto a flat surface without somehow distorting it or breaking its continuity.
These projections have been developed over the course of human history, and there are a lot of choices!
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Depending on the intended use of the map projection, there are certain map features e. The Basemap package implements several dozen such projections, all referenced by a short format code.
Here we'll briefly demonstrate some of the more common ones. We'll start by defining a convenience routine to draw our world map along with the longitude and latitude lines:. The simplest of map projections are cylindrical projections, in which lines of constant latitude and longitude are mapped to horizontal and vertical lines, respectively. This type of mapping represents equatorial regions quite well, but results in extreme distortions near the poles. The spacing of latitude lines varies between different cylindrical projections, leading to different conservation properties, and different distortion near the poles.
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I prefer more accurate distances followed by shapes. The Albers equal area conic is the typical projection for historical USGS maps of the lower 48, it being a general-purpose low-distortion compromise for mid-latitude short and wide extents. ESRI has defined three projections especially for the contiguos United states. These are included in QGIS as well:. So it is up to you which projection characteristics you need: equal area, equal distance or conformal. If shape is important, consider a Lambert conic conformal projection, with two standard latitudes.
Distances will be consistent in the vicinity of each of the standard parallels. You could also consider some sort of "equidistant" projection. However, distance scale will never be true everywhere; only true from one or two points in all directions or from one line in a single direction.
Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Which projection is best for mapping the contiguous United States? Ask Question. Asked 5 years, 8 months ago. Active 5 years, 8 months ago. Viewed 35k times. DenaliHardtail DenaliHardtail 2, 3 3 gold badges 23 23 silver badges 57 57 bronze badges. What is more important: shapes, distances, or cardinal directions?
Related: gis. Active Oldest Votes. Albers, pg 37 Lambert, pg 66 equidistant conic, pg MC5 MC5 1, 12 12 silver badges 23 23 bronze badges. Good direction indeed! AndreJ AndreJ It's not clear what you mean by "equal distance. Other projections may have relevant properties not shared by these, such as being cylindrical, minimizing the grid convergence, etc.
The wide variety of possible choices is what led mr. BradHorn both links proof that those are not reliable sources. See wikipedia. Martin F Martin F 8, 28 28 silver badges 56 56 bronze badges.
Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook.You can use a map chart to compare values and show categories across geographical regions.
If you are a Microsoft subscriber, make sure you have the latest version of Office. You can download a workbook with several map chart examples like the ones in this article. Map charts can display both values and categories, and they each have different ways of displaying color. Values are represented by slight variations of two to three colors.
Categories are represented by different colors. The values represent tax revenue in each country with each portrayed using a gradient spectrum of two colors. The color for each region is dictated by where along the spectrum its value falls. By default, the higher the value is, the darker its corresponding color will be.
In the following example, Countries by Category, the categories are displayed using a standard legend to show groups or affiliations. Each country is represented by a different color. Map charts have gotten even easier with geography data types.
Excel will automatically convert your data to a geography data type, and will include properties relevant to that data that you can display in a map chart. If the preview looks good, then press OK. Depending on your data, Excel will insert either a value or category map. Similarly, if you remove a country, then Excel will also remove it from the chart.
Once your map chart has been created you can easily adjust its design. Just click on the map, then choose from the Chart Design or Format tabs in the ribbon.
You can also double-click the chart to launch the Format Object Task Panewhich will appear on the right-hand side of the Excel window. This will also expose the map chart specific Series options see below. There are several map chart specific Series optionshowever they are not supported in Android devices or Excel Mobile. If you need some of the map Series options, then you can build your chart in Excel for Windows or Mac and view it on an Android device or Excel Mobile.
Learn more about Formatting Map Charts. Map projections - Change the map's projection style. By default, Excel will display the most efficient style. Chose to show names based on fit, or show all labels. Question: When I use certain text-based locations, I end up with a blank map and an error, or some of my points map in other countries. If possible, add a higher-level detail column to your data. But the data should map correctly if you add another column for higher-level detail, in this case, Province — This is called Disambiguation:.
Data that will create a map of Washington State.Contrary to what most Americans are likely to believe, area codes exist outside of the US. There are area codes in the world: in the US, 42 in Canada, 17 non-geographic, and 20 others. Most of the other area codes are in the Caribbean. California is the state with the most area codes at 34 followed by Texas 27New York 19Florida 17and Illinois While no area codes in the US cross state boundaries, 3 area codes in Canada cross province boundaries.
NANPA organizes the allocation of area codes and telephone prefixes to various phone companies. NPA : Area codes came into use during the early s. NPA codes are more commonly referred to as area codes. While the system was developed in the 40s, direct dialing of long distance did not begin until the early 50s.Writeaprisoner forum news paper maker software
Some area codes are reserved for special purposes. For instance, area code commonly referred to as numbers is reserved for toll free calls where the called party is charged instead of the calling party.
Also, not all area codes are currently in use. The NXX is also known as the prefix or exchange. Various telephone carriers will reserve blocks of telephone numbers by reserving an NXX within an area code. Like area codes, not all prefixes are currently in use. Subscriber : Finally, the final 4 digits of the phone number are known as the subscriber or local number. Based on the total number of active NPA and NXX combinations reserved and that each one could have up to 10, possible subscriber numbers, the current total possible number of telephone numbers is 1, Remember though that phone numbers are no longer just used for standard home phones.
Many telephone numbers are now used for fax machines, cell phones or wireless phones, or internet connections so one person may actually need multiple phone lines. They were created to prepare for a nationwide unified long-distance direct dialing system - the ability to make a call to any other calling area without the need for an operator. The first digit did not allow a zero could be confused with the operator or a 1 techical reasons.The United States US covers a total area of 9, sq.
Of this area, the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia cover 8, sq. The archipelago of Hawaii has an area of 28, sq. The greatest east-west distance in the 48 contiguous states of the country is 4, km. North-south, the longest distance in the 48 contiguous states region is 2, km. Higher elevation is shown in brown identifying mountain ranges such as the Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains. Lower elevations are indicated throughout the southeast of the country, as well as along the Eastern Seaboard.
Major rivers in the country include the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Colorado, the Arkansas, and the Columbia. The map above shows the location of the United States within North America, with Mexico to the south and Canada to the north.
Found in the Western Hemisphere, the country is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the east and the Pacific Ocean in the west, as well as the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Regional Maps : Map of North America. This page was last updated on November 9, Key Facts. Electoral college map.Thesis paper writing service advertisement board
US latitude and Longitude map. Louisiana purchase map.
Major US river map. US county map. US landform map showing mountain ranges. US map with states and capitals.Scientists have mapped the changes in climate that cities across North America will experience by if global warming isn't stopped, with the residents of New York, Boston, and Philadelphia on course to see conditions currently found hundreds of kilometers to the south.
If current levels of greenhouse gas emissions are pumped into the Earth's atmosphere for the rest of the 21st century, today's children will live in climates not only unlike anything their parents or grandparents have experienced, but not seen for millennia, the scientists who created the map warned.International school of bearn homework
But figures such as a 3C rise in global temperatures, which scientists believe would be catastrophic to the survival of life on Earth as we know it, can feel abstract to the average person, argued the creators of the map presented in the journal Nature Communications.
The team wanted to make the impending threat easier to digest, by mapping how the conditions in urban areas—home to around million people across the U.
Create a Map chart in Excel
In North America, urban areas will have to become accustomed to the current climate of regions some kilometers away on average, the scientists said.
And thanks to their hulking populations, relatively old infrastructure, and a lack of coordinated effort to stem the effects of climate change, cities are particularly prone to the negative effects of changes in climate.
Most major cities don't have contingency plans in place for impending environmental disasters, and the subsequent social and economic fallout, they warned. The subtropical humidity of the midwest and south-eastern U.
In contrast, cities to the west will in time more closely resemble the deserts of the Southwest or southern California. To create their map, the researchers used a statistical technique called climate-analog mapping to prove comparisons between the modern day and future climates of urban areas.
They drew on the mean climate data documented between to and average projections for to However, the scientists acknowledged the map left out important outcomes such as the rise of sea levels, health issues, and the risk of extreme weather events. For instance, the new normal could see species pop up in the northeast that are usually seen in the southeast, like Asian Tiger mosquitoes and with it the West Nile Virus.
Still, the team said they hoped their map will provide an "intuitive" way for members of the public to grasp the dangers posed by climate change. Study author Dr. Matt Fitzpatrick and associate professor at the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science told Newsweek : "Our results show just how dramatic a transformation climate is expected to undergo over the next several decades.
These changes are already underway. Our results clearly show the effect that reducing emissions could have on the magnitude of future climate change. He contined: "Everyone should be concerned, but especially those living in places that are particularly dependent on the current climate regime to provide adequate water and where coastal flooding will become a substantial threat.
The paper is the latest warning from scientists of the impending threat. Last year, a study published in the journal Nature Climate Change warned that if the pledges of the Paris climate agreement are not met, more than a quarter of the Earth will suffer droughts and desertification by President Donald Trump withdrew from the agreement in June Choose your subscription.
Newsweek magazine delivered to your door Unlimited access to Newsweek. Unlimited access to Newsweek. The Starting 5 See why nearly a quarter of a million subscribers begin their day with the Starting 5.Retrieved August 9, 2017. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
Archived from the original on May 26, 2017. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2017. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2011. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008.
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Jeffrey MacDonald (March 27, 2007). Archived from the original on May 23, 2017. The Emergence of the Modern World Conference, Otzenhausen, Germany: Penn State University.
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